Patenting and marketing of inventions
A patent is a commercial property right for an invention. It is granted by a patent office and entitles the owner to prohibit other parties from utilizing the invention for a certain time.
Property right protection via patents forms the basis for generating license income. This benefits both the Max Planck Society, your Max Planck Institute as well as you. As an inventor or association of inventors you generally receive an inventor remuneration amounting to 30 % of the license revenues. However, you also benefit in other ways from the utilization: You receive feedback regarding your research work, contacts to industry and further publications can result.
As soon as you inform us about your invention, we check whether it can be protected under intellectual property law and examine the economic viability before then developing a suitable patent and license strategy. We first check the formal criteria that are necessary for granting a patent – innovation, inventive activity and commercial (industrial) applicability – and then evaluate the commercial potential in extensive market research.
We advise you what additional step may be necessary and accompany the patent application in collaboration with external patent attorneys. Yet inventions that cannot actually be patented are valuable and can often be licensed as qualified expertise to a partner from industry.
We are in contact with numerous companies for marketing your invention. We investigate the market environment for your invention and target interested parties for discussion. We also negotiate fair terms and conditions for licensing your invention, conclude the required contracts, and make sure that all parties abide with the agreements until the end of the contractual period.
Another option for turning an invention into a marketable product involves founding a company. We advise you in business or financial planning and much more while offering numerous funding instruments for your planned start-up. The foundation can be realized with you as inventor as well as with external managers. More on spin-offs.
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Publications are evidence of the high quality of your work as a researcher. Presentation of your research results in prestigious journals offers an outstanding opportunity to make yourself known to the scientific community and forms the basis for subsequent citations. Besides specialist articles, patent and utility model specifications also represent a form of scientific publication.
The development of new advanced technologies is very intensive in terms of time and cost. It can take years to progress from the initial idea through to a product that can be marketed – especially when developing inventions further from basic research. The development costs are not infrequently many millions of euros and often entail a high entrepreneurial risk. Future-oriented companies that invest in the development of new products require securities to safeguard their investment. Patents represent an ownership right to inventions. They allow companies to prohibit imitations and profit financially from the sale of their innovations. To be able to utilize the rights to the relevant invention, companies pay an appropriate license fee to Max Planck Innovation. Thus patents, often paired with entrepreneurial spirit, often form the basis for scientific and economic progress to the benefit of the general public.
The first step towards a patent or another form of protection under intellectual property law for your invention plus subsequent marketing involves registering your invention. According to the employment contract and the Employee Invention Act, you need to register all work results or idea that may have the character of an invention to the Max Planck Society, ideally via your Institute Management, and Max Planck Innovation.
If you are sure you have made an invention, please fill out the attached form.
Are you still unsure?
Give us a call? An official invention disclosure entails certain periods. We shall be pleased to clarify with you in advance whether an invention disclosure is the right step at the current time.
How to fill out an invention disclosure (click to zoom):
- Evaluation of inventions from the Max Planck Institutes in the field of biology and medicine
- Examination of patentability and economic viability
- Patent application
- Marketing of inventions
- Who advises my institute: Overview
Dr. Mareike Göritz
Phone: +49 89 / 29 09 19-32
Dr. Dieter Link
Phone: +49 89 / 29 09 19-28
Dr. Ingrid Kapser-Fischer
Phone: +49 89 / 29 09 19-19
Molecular biologist, M.Sc.
Phone +49 89 / 29 09 19-49
Dr. Marianne Schwarz
Phone: +49 89 / 29 09 19-15
- Evaluation of inventions from the Max Planck Institutes in the fields of Chemistry, Physics, Technology & Software
- Examination of patentability and economic viability
- Patent application
- Marketing of inventions
- Who advises my institute: Overview
Dr. Bernd Ctortecka, M. Phil.
Phone: +49 89 / 29 09 19-20
Dr. Lars Cuypers
Phone: +49 89 / 29 09 19-21
PD Dr. Wolfgang Tröger
Phone: +49 89 / 29 09 19-27
Dr. Andreas Vogler
Phone: +49 89 / 29 09 19-36
Electronics Engineer (M.Sc. Econ.)
Phone: +49 89 / 29 09 19-18
Caution – Novelty destroying publication
Very important: Prior to the filing date (the so-called priority date), every public disclosure regarding your invention can seriously affect the success of your patent application. This applies to publications in scientific journals as well as for public lectures, seminars, thesis papers, conference posters and abstracts, and every kind of online publications (e.g. sequence databases). Please contact us as early as possible, ideally about six weeks, ahead of a planned publication.
Research cooperations with industry fall within the scope of the individual Max Planck Institutes and the Max Planck Society. However, if we can find potential cooperation partners in our huge network of industry contacts we are happy to provide them to you.
Frequently Asked Questions
Have you devised a novel manufacturing process, developed a device, written software, described a new material or gene or improved an existing technology?
Then you have created something novel, or, in legal terms, generated intellectual property (IP). Whether and how this IP can be protected by patents or other legal means depends on several factors.
The following sections try to answer the most important questions. For all other questions please call or send us an email.
What is intellectual property and what are commercial property rights?
The term "intellectual property" refers to products of the human intellect (e.g. inventions, know-how, software). The term "commercial property rights" comprises all rights protecting intellectual property: patent and utility model rights with respect to inventions, copyright with respect to works of science, literature and the arts, including software.
What distinguishes discoveries from inventions?
If you trace or recognize previously unknown natural laws, connect effects, properties or occurrences that are already present in nature, then you have made a discovery. If, on the other hand, you have solved a specified problem by technical means, you have made an invention. There are, however, borderline cases. The discovery of a novel gene is not an invention; however if the gene was discovered by means of a novel technical achievement or a well-defined industrial application for the gene can be described, it is an invention. You should therefore discuss with us any scientific findings that may fall into these categories, because you may have made a patentable invention.
How are inventions protected?
A patent is the most effective way to protect IP as it entitles the holder of the patent to exclude all third parties from commercializing the patented inventive idea for a period of 20 years, starting from the date of filing (there is however an exception: scientific research on the subject of the invention is free). The holder of the patent is free to use it commercially, but he can also grant a license to third parties, allowing them commercial use of the invention. All patent applications are disclosed after 18 months and made accessible to the public in order to contribute to the dissemination of technical knowledge.
As scientists of the Max Planck Society are obliged to publish the results of their research as soon as possible, you should try to protect your invention by filing for patent applications prior to publication. Once you have filed a patent application, priority is ensured under patent law and there is usually no obstacle to scientific publication.
Besides patents, the utility model offers protection for smaller inventions, e.g. technical improvements. However, this protection does not cover process inventions and is limited to a maximum of 10 years. Also, broad international protection is not possible. Therefore the utility model is of minor importance to the Max Planck Society.
What is patentable?
Inventions which are novel and commercially applicable and which have a sufficient level of inventiveness are patentable. The following, for example, can be patented: devices and instruments of all kinds; chemical and pharmaceutical substances, including those which occur in nature (e.g. isolated microbiological or biological material such as DNA sequences, viruses, plasmids, etc.); metal alloys and chemical compounds with so far unknown or new properties; new materials; all means of applying and using known substances, and production processes and techniques of all kinds. Excluded from patent protection are, among others: discoveries, scientific theories and mathematical methods in their own right, EDP programmes, plant and animal species, and inventions that are illegal or immoral.
For plant varieties, special property rights apply. Also excluded from patent protection are diagnostic and therapeutic procedures performed on the human body (e.g. medical examination practices), as they are not regarded as commercially applicable (see below). Drugs and diagnostic kits may be patented, however.
Which conditions must be met for a patent to be granted?
An invention is regarded as novel if it is not part of the prior art. Prior art includes all knowledge in the public domain – either through written or verbal specification, through use or in any other way – prior to the patent application. This includes, in particular, lectures at scientific conferences or the publication of articles and abstracts in scientific journals. An announcement by the inventor himself also destroys the novelty of the invention.
The inventive step refers to the intellectual achievement behind the invention. An inventive step exists, when the inventive idea cannot be considered “obvious” to a person skilled in the art. However, even a minor step forward compared to the prior art might be inventive. Likewise, the advantageous novel combination of already known circumstances or newly discovered applications (e.g. a second medical indication for a marketed drug) may be regarded as inventive.
An invention is considered to be commercially applicable if it appears suitable for manufacture or for use in any industrial sector. No evidence of this suitability has to be provided during the application phase. However, processes for surgical or therapeutic treatment of the human or animal body as well as diagnostic processes performed on the human or animal body are not regarded as being commercially applicable, although the associated substances and implements are.
Who is the inventor in a research group?
The sole inventor is the person who, as a result of his inventive idea, finds a solution to a specified problem by technical means. If several persons collaborated on the invention, they are co-inventors – in so far as they made a substantial contribution to the solution of the problem. In the invention disclosure form sent to us you should therefore already specify the percentage share of each inventor in the invention – particularly in regard to the future distribution of the inventor remuneration.
To whom do inventions belong?
Inventions made by MPG staff members usually emerge within the scope of their research activities or are based on the institute's experience or work. These inventions are thus called "employee inventions". In accordance with the German Employees' Inventions Act, the employer, i.e. the Max Planck Society, is entitled to such inventions – in so far as the Max Planck Society claims them under the stipulations of the act. The claim will be examined and lodged within four months after the filing of your invention disclosure form.
What are my duties as an inventor?
According to Max Planck Society employment contracts and also to the Employees' Inventions Act, all occupational findings or ideas that may have inventive character must be reported to the institute's management. A special form is available for this purpose and can be obtained from the management or from Max Planck Innovation . Furthermore, the inventor must, to the best of his ability, support the Max Planck Society in its efforts to apply for and commercialize his invention. As a rule, your accompanying know-how is necessary to enable a future licensee to realise the economic potential of a product based on your invention.
Whom do I need to contact as an inventor?
Please ask your institute's management or turn to us for advice. Just call us – no red tape involved!
How can I publish without putting patent protection at risk?
Usually, you are free to publish as soon as you have secured priority for your invention by filing a patent application. Prior to the so-called priority date, however, you should proceed very carefully. Premature publication of research results represents the greatest danger to the patentability of inventions. Publications in this sense include not only journal articles, but also speeches, lectures, presentations at conferences and seminars, as well as disclosure of data and results on the Internet. Conference posters, abstracts in conference proceedings, etc., are just as damaging to novelty as disclosure in handouts or masters and PhD theses. Due to the fact that such publications – even if they are theoretical in nature – can hint at the innovative idea, they endanger later IP protection in relation to the inventive step. Therefore, you should contact us prior to the publication of any research results that seem – or whose further development seems – to be commercially viable. We can advise, whether IP protection is worthwhile.
How can I file for a patent and who pays for it?
After receiving your invention disclosure form, we examine whether the invention is likely to lead to a successful patent application and we evaluate the commercial potential. To this end, we conduct patent searches and market research. If the evaluation is positive – and after clearance with you and the Max Planck Institute, who meet the costs of the application – we instruct an independent patent attorney experienced in the relevant field to draw up the patent application. We aim to burden you as little as possible with this process. In general, the rough draft of a planned publication is a sufficient basis for a patent application. Subsequently, you will receive an outline of the application for your review and will be asked to answer any unresolved questions. Occasionally, a working session with the patent attorney may be necessary.
The costs for patenting are initially borne by the relevant Max Planck Institute. From the introduction of the international phases (e.g Europe, USA, Canada), the costs can be reimbursed centrally. For independent junior groups, reimbursement is possible after submitting the so-called PCT application. Please contact us if you have any questions.
What is know-how?
Know-how refers to all unpublished knowledge that gives its owner an advantage over his competitors. Know-how may have inventive character. However, if no patent application is filed, the Know-How is only protected until it is made public. New processes, advantageous combinations of known features, formulas, processing tricks, cell lines, antibodies, animal models, etc., can all count as know-how. Know-how generated by employees of the Max Planck Society within the scope of their work belongs to the Max Planck Society, without any formal acts. If you have generated know-how, then please notify us using an invention disclosure form. To a significant extent, know-how is the subject of license agreements. As for patents, successfully commercialized know-how is remunerated according to the Max Planck Society employees' invention regulations.
What about computer software?
This is a complex question, and unfortunately the regulations in Germany, Europe, and the US are not standardized. There is agreement, however, that software can be patented if it is linked to a technical application (so-called computer-implemented invention – e.g. measuring, control and adjustment software). For example, the software preventing the blocking of car wheels during breaking (antilock braking system) is patented.
Frequently, a decision is made not to patent software, which is instead classified and commercialized as technical know-how. As a rule, software is covered by copyright protection if it clearly surpasses the usual process of creating programmes with more or less routine, mechanical-technical stringing together of existing algorithms etc. Copyright protection exists from the point of completion of the software. In contrast to patents, no official document is issued by a public authority. Similar to know-how, software written by employees of the Max Planck Society within the scope of their work belongs to the Max Planck Society without any formal acts. If you have written software, we kindly ask you to fill out an invention disclosure form. The Max Planck Society remunerates employees for commercialized software according to the employees' invention regulations.
What is a license agreement?
License agreements grant industrial enterprises rights to the commercial use of inventions/patents, technical know-how, and software – in return for a fee. Typically, an upfront payment, milestone payments and royalties, as well as reimbursement of patent costs are expected. License agreements are negotiated, closed and monitored by our patent and license managers and our lawyers. We take particular care that license agreements do not limit the freedom of research, research collaborations and publications of the Max Planck Institute involved.
What is a cooperation agreement?
Industry often is interested to collaborate on a particular research area with a Max Planck Institute or to further develop a licensed invention in collaboration with the Max Planck Institute. The respective cooperation agreements usually provide for grants that allow the institute to carry out the developmental work.
The following should be ensured when drawing up the contract: that the subject of the collaboration is sufficiently narrowed down so that it does not comprise the whole research area of the department involved; that the freedom of the institute to publish is guaranteed (taking into account the interest of the collaboration partner); that inventions made by scientists of the Max Planck Society within the scope of the collaboration are owned by the Max Planck Society and not the industry partner (usually, the industry partner is granted an option for a license with fair terms), and that license fees are not waived in exchange for contributions in kind or research grants. Although we provide support for the closing of a consultancy agreement, the formal responsibility lies with your institute and the finance department of the Max Planck Society. In contrast to license agreements, which are closed by Max Planck Innovation, cooperation agreements are concluded between the industry partner and the institute itself.
What is a consultancy agreement?
If an industry partner requests the personal advice of an employee of the Max Planck Society to solve a scientific problem – either in addition to, or independent of, a license or cooperation agreement – a (private) consultancy agreement can be made. Prior to closing a consultancy agreement, the employee has to obtain clearance for the agreement and the secondary employment (so-called Nebentätigkeit), either from the institute’s management, or – for directors and leaders of junior research groups – from the president or the secretary general of the Max Planck Society. When drawing up the contract, it should be ensured that the area of consultancy is sufficiently narrowed down so that it does not comprise the whole research area of the employee involved, and that inventions made by the scientist within the scope of the consultancy are owned by the Max Planck Society and not the industry partner (usually, the industry partner is granted an option for a license with fair terms). The Max Planck Society provides support for the wording of a consultancy agreement.
MTA - What needs to be considered when handing out research samples?
Material samples arising from one's own research activities should only be given to third parties for research purposes, and then either to scientists with whom one is on friendly terms, or to recognized research institutions, on the basis of a written agreement. If you are not the supplier but rather the recipient of material samples, you should turn in the MTAs from the respective research institutions or companies for review by the Max Planck Society prior to signing.
How does the Max Planck Society compensate inventors?
According to the current MPG regulations covering Employees' inventions dated March 9, 1967, you generally stand to receive up to 30% of the gross license income that Max Planck Innovation receives from the commercialization of the IP or know-how you created. This compensation exceeds the minimum rates of indemnification for employee inventions provided for by guidelines currently in force in private industry and in the public sector, and is intended to motivate you to participate actively in technology transfer.
- Guidelines for Inventors (PDF) (5.3 MiB)
- Guidelines for Knowledge and Technology Transfer (PDF) (394.7 KiB)